A constitutional republic is a type of Government where the representatives are supposed to be elected by the people. They are elected in order to rule over the territory as well as the people, as per the rules that are established in that particular territory. The United States is the perfect example of such form of Government, also known as the constitutional republic. This Legal term means that a representative is elected by the people of the United States, and these representatives shall then rule the people, serving them, in accordance with the laws of the country. They are mainly governed by the constitution of the country first, and then the other related laws.
According to Law, in the Constitutional Republic, the executives, the legislatures, and the judicial powers are segregated into various branches, along with some provisions of power being with the citizens of the country. The branches are in accordance with what is permitted under the law and the Constitution. It is under these branches that the power of the representatives, no matter what position- a bureaucrat or the President, is limited. The constitution is of utmost importance in such republics, and no matter what the position, one cannot just simply ignore the authority of the Constitution.
To be precise, a constitutional republic can be determined as one, if:
The Constitution renders limited power to the Heads, Representatives, as well as the Bureaucrats.
These heads, bureaucrats, and the representatives are chosen by the citizens.
This is the main essence of a constitutional republic.
However, not all constitutional republics function in the same manner. Some function in a way where the head of the stated can completely ignore the essence of the Constitution.
In the United States, council members, state representatives, senators, as well as the governors are elected directly by the public. Whereas some officials like the Mayor are not directly elected. The President as well is elected by the Electoral Party that has won, and the President can further choose the Honourable Heads of the Supreme Court. This is seen in an ideal Constitutional Republic situation.
Basically, the constitutional republics are functioning in such a way, in order to protect the rights of the people against the tyranny of the major leaders as well as the major classes and elitists. In order to protect the minorities, from their right being infringed, the constitutional republic plays a major role, because it tends to limit the powers.
The individuals are left free to make their own decisions and are treated equally, under the guarding authority- i.e. the Constitution. The individuals no matter what their ethnicity, race, class, religion, gender, sexual orientation, etc. is, they are free to choose the type of environment they want to live in, work in, daily lifestyle choices they are to make, they have the authority to practice any form of religion, no matter how minor it is, the people are their own rulers in a sense. The Representatives and their authority are limited to this extent. They cannot intervene in the daily lifestyle and choices of the individuals, they cannot prohibit their free speech and cannot infringe any of their basic rights.